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The English makers dominated the watch industry in the 18th century and largely retained control until the mass produced high grade American watches of the latter 19th Century displaced them. The Swiss industry was quickly behind the Americans and between them there was little room left for the English except for very high grade watches to be sold primarily to Englishmen and a few, largely patriotic, efforts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. There are exceptions to these generalities and the work of Nicole and Nielsen for Dent, Frodsham and their other customers continued well into the 20th century. The Bonniksen Karrusel was a major English contribution to the late 19th century that carried over into the first decade of the 20th. English chronometer makers continued to dominate up until the 1920's when the Swiss succeeded in displacing them partly as a result of the dislocations brought about by WWI.